Glossary

A
  • Analogue

    A chemical compound having a structure similar to that of another, but differing from it in respect to a certain component.

  • Anorexia

    Not to be confused with the obsessive worry about body weight (called anorexia nervosa), anorexia is the abnormal loss of appetite for food.

  • Antiproliferative

    The quality of limiting or inhibiting cell growth.

B
  • Balneotherapy

    An ancient form of therapy or treatment involving bathing, and usually practiced at spas.

  • Bone marrow problems

    Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside some of the bones. It is essential to the development of blood cells.

C
  • Carcinogenic

    A substance or agent that can cause cells to become cancerous.

  • Corticosteroids

    Man-made drugs that resemble cortisol, a hormone naturally produced by adrenal glands.

D
  • Dermatitis

    Dermatitis means skin inflammation and covers a wide range of ailments.

E
  • Enzymes

    Biological molecules that accelerate or catalyze chemical reactions.

  • Epidermal differentiation

    Cellular differentiation is the process of a cell changing from one cell type to another. In the case of epidermal differentiation, it is the process by which epidermal stem cells change and migrate towards the surface of the skin.

  • Epidermal proliferation

    Growth in the number of skin cells.

  • Erythroderma

    Also known as exfoliative dermatitis, erythroderma is an intense and usually widespread reddening of the skin due to inflammatory skin disease.

F
  • Folliculitis

    It is a common skin condition where hair follicles become inflamed.

G
  • Guttate psoriasis

    A skin condition in which small, red, scaly teardrop-shaped spots with a silvery scale appear. The term “guttate” means “drop” in Latin.

H
  • Hypertension

    Also known as high-blood pressure, it is a condition where blood flows in the vessels with a force greater than normal. Over the long-term, hypertension can cause damage to the heart and the blood vessels.

I
  • Immune system

    Composed of many biological structures and processes, it protects the organism against disease. To function properly, it must be able to detect a wide array of pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism’s own healthy tissue.

  • Immunomodulator

    A chemical agent that modifies the immune response or the functioning of the immune system.

J
K
L
M
  • Mitotic

    Refers to the process of cellular division.

  • Monotherapy

    A treatment of a physiological condition or disease using a single drug or method.

N
  • Narrow-Band-UVB (NB-UVB)

    The UVB wavelengths comprised between 311 and 313 nm. It was discovered in the 1980s that those wavelengths were the most efficient against psoriasis.

O
P
  • Phototoxicity

    A chemically induced skin irritation, requiring light.

  • Proliferation

    The process that results in an increase of the number of cells.

  • Pustular psoriasis

    Also known as palmopustular pustulosis, it manifests, as its name indicates, mostly on the palms and soles, as pustules, associated with thickened, scaly, red skin that often develops painful cracks.

  • PUVA Photochemotherapy

    It is the use of a light-sensitizing medication to enhance the effects of ultraviolet A rays on psoriasis.

Q
R
  • Renal toxicity (or nephrotoxicity)

    A kidney problem that occurs when the body is exposed to a substance that causes damage to the kidneys. When this happens, the body is unable to dispose of excess urine and wastes, cascading in numerous other physiological problems.

  • Retinoic acid receptors

    Also known as RAR, it is a protein from the family of nuclear receptors (proteins active in the nucleus of a cell) linking vitamin A and some of its derivatives.

  • Retinoid

    A class of chemical compounds related or derived from vitamin A.

S
  • Systemic

    Something is said to be systemic (usually, a disease or a treatment) when it affects a number of organs and tissues, or the body as a whole.

T
  • TNH inhibitor

    Substances that block the action of tumour necrosis factor.

  • Topical

    Topical medication means that it is applied to skin surfaces or mucous membranes.

  • Tumour necrosis factor

    Also known as TNF, it refers to a group of small proteins that can cause cell death.

U
  • Ultraviolet B (UVB) rays

    The category of UV radiation that ranges from 280 to 320 nm, over prolonged exposure, they can cause sunburn.

  • UV light

    The electromagnetic spectrum includes different types of radiation: radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays and gamma rays. UV is short for ultraviolet and refers to the range of radiation comprised between approximately 100 and 400 nm.

V
W
X
Y
Z